Amendment 2 Glossary
Stem cell therapies and cures include any medical treatment that involves or otherwise derives from the use of stem cells, and that is used to treat or cure any disease or injury. For Amendment 2, this includes stem cell clinical trials.
Cloning, or somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), is a technique that combines an egg with its nucleus removed (an enucleated egg) and the nucleus of a somatic cell to make an embryo. Cloning can be used for therapeutic or reproductive purposes, but the initial stage that combines the enucleated egg and a somatic cell nucleus is the same. A "yes" vote on Amendment 2 would ban human cloning or attempted human cloning.
Somatic cell nuclear transfer is the scientific term for cloning.
Preimplantation, in regards to an embryo, means that the embryo has not yet been implanted into the wall of the uterus.
Fertilization is the joining of the male gamete (sperm) and the female gamete (egg).
A blastocyst is a preimplantation embryo of about 150 cells produced by cell division following fertilization. The blastocyst is a sphere made up of an outer layer of cells (the trophoblast), a fluid-filled cavity (the blastocoel), and a cluster of cells on the interior (the inner cell mass).
In-vitro fertilization is a technique that unites the egg and sperm in a laboratory, instead of inside the female body.
As explained within the amendment, donated means donated for use in connection with scientific research, medical research, or medical treatment.
An institutional review board is a specially constituted review board established and operating in accordance with federal law.
As stated in Amendment 2: "No person may, for valuable consideration, purchase or sell human blastocysts or eggs for stem cell research or stem cell therapies and cures." Here, valuable consideration means financial gain or advantage, but does not include reimbursement for 'reasonable costs incurred in connection with' anything that has to do with the process of medical stem cells. This includes the lost wages of the donor.
Valuable consideration also does not include the consideration paid to a donor of human eggs or sperm by a clinic or sperm bank, as well as any other payment expressly allowed by federal law.
Information from the International Society for Stem Cell Research and the National Institutes of Health were used for this glossary.